We aim to develop and market antimicrobial that can overcome antibiotic resistance and effective anti fungi drugs.Many current antibiotics are ineffective against superbugs. Much of this antibiotic resistance is caused by underdosing which exposes a microbe to non lethal quantities not enough to kill the microbe but teaches the microbes how to resist that particular antibiotic.
*Antibiotic resistance is effected through various mechanisms by bacteria.
i) Bacterium changes permeability of its walls and consequently only much less antibiotic in non lethal dose can penetrate into the bacterium cell.
ii) Enzymes produced inside the bacterium cell degrades the antibiotic.
iii) Replication mechanisms inside the bacterium cell which are targeted by the antibiotic mutate and renders the antibiotic ineffective.
iv) The bacterium energizes an efflux pump which effectively regurgitates the antibiotic which has penetrated into the bacterium cell.
*To overcome antibiotic resistance:
i) New antibiotics to destroy bacterial cellular structure on contact or in immediate vicinity.
ii) Inhibit bacterial growth to numbers that cause virulence and uncontrolled binary divisions resulting in massive infections and resistant biofilms.
i) New antibiotics that destroy bacterial cell integrity so that the bacteria has no space to mutate or develop resistance tactics. At the same time such antimicrobial must not be harsh or toxic like alcohol or bleaches. Triclosans and biguanides, currently used for microbial inhibition create environment concerns and possible resistance by bacteria.
ii) Limit bacterial growth so that there is no virulence in the host(plant or mammal).
i) Critical: Priority 1
Acinetobacter baumanii, carbapenem resistant
Psuedomona aeruginosa, carbapenem resistant
Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem resistant, 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant
ii) High: Priority 2
Enterococcus faecium, vancomycin resistant
Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant,vancomycin resistant.
Helicobacter pylori, clarithromycin resistant
Campylobacter, fluoroquinolone resistant
Salmonella spp, fluoroquinolone resistant
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 3rd generation cephalosporin resistant, fluoroquinolone resistant.
iii) Medium: Priority 3
Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin non susceptible(insensitive)
Haemophilus influenza, ampicillin resistant
Shigella spp(several species) fluoroquinolone resistant.
6) New antibiotics will have extensive applications if that type of antibiotic can kill or destroy cell structures of above antibiotic resistant bacteria or prevent the virulence of the above bacteria or able to breakdown biofilms caused by above bacteria.
7) WHO has emphasized the need especially for antibiotics against MDR (multi drug resistant) Gram-negative bacteria which express massive endotoxins release on the lysis of such bacteria.
The spread of such antibiotic resistant bacteria in community and healthcare settings are highlighted.
The cross infection between animals and mammals is also a great concern.