For the suite of products which overcome antibiotic resistance we are further developing and marketing three different clusters:
A) Metal Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS)Zn/ZnO composites
These metal/metal oxide composites have demonstrated in vitro to be very potent cascades of reactive oxygen species, lethal on contact to E. coli using the JIS Z 2801/ISO 22196 method. The ROS density was demonstrated by chemiluminescence test:
ROS concentration of ZnO/Zn is much higher than the rest.This suggests that ROS is the main reason that kills bacteria(Zn,ZnO/glass and Zno/Ti have no bactericidal property(log reduction <1) as evaluated using JIS method.
These Zn/ZnO high ROS compounds are low in cost and easy to scale up production.It is very stable and have long-term activity, not size dependent and can be active in size ranging from nano to micro metre.This product is clean and safe and ZnO is classified as a skin protectant by FDA.
We have branded our Zn/ZnO product Rozinco
Applications of Rozinco
Applications include use as preservatives or active ingredients in cosmetics and personal products. The Zn/ZnO composite can be used in several forms in a variety of products:
i) In solid form:
* Antiseptic and anti fungal powder;foot deodorant powder
*Hand protectant and sanitizing powder before inserting surgical and sanitary gloves.
*Solid water or air filters(to reduce airborne or waterborne diseases esp. nosocomial environments)
ii) In creams or ointments:
*Cosmetic creams including skin creams and facial washes and cleansers.
*Skin protectant Creams for minor skin cuts,wounds,irritations and localised infections like impetigo and nappy rash.
*Body and Foot deodorants
iii) In emulsions,gels,solutions and sprays:
*Cosmetic and skin care products
*Gels for oral canker sores and gum infections.
*Gargles and disinfecting dental device washes and rinsers
*Non alcohol skin and hand sanitizer with moisturiser and skin protectant.
*Disinfecting paint for any surface or walls in nurseries,nursing homes,hospitals,community areas,pet toys and pet houses.
(Pictures of nurseries,hospital or health areas,community areas, pet toys and houses)
*In sprays for horticulture and agriculture for plant fungal and bacterial infections and preservation of cut in flowers in vase(in water)
*Pet washes and pet skin infections.
(Picture of pets)
*Personal care products like shampoos and bath washes
iv) Impregnating the composite in polymer or textile fibers:
*Cloth diapers(washable and reusable with bacterial reduction quality.
*Disposable baby or adult diapers(with bacterial reduction quality)
*Odour reduction and non skin irritation clothes for sensitive skin
*Odour reduction floortraps and urinal traps.
*Aircondition and air filters for homes and hospitals
B) Short Beta Folding Peptides
Although some natural membrane lytic antimicrobial peptides(AMP) produced from bacteria,fungus,insects(eg moricin,melittin) and mammals(defensin and protegrins) hold great promise as anti infectious disease therapies,the many challenges to their wide usage include production costs,systemic toxicities,long peptide sequence (tendency for protein binding with body fluids) and possible compromise of host immune system.
A class of specially designed and engineered short beta folding peptides amphiphiles exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and kill many pathogens including a wide array of Gram positive bacteria like S. aureus and S. epidermis ,Gram negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli. This peptide design has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of MRSA(methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus),VRE(vancomycin resistant enterococci) and the fungi Cryptococcus neofarmans and Candida albicans. The peptides cause the lysis of bacterial cells and their immediate death.
These peptides are superior in action to many current antibiotics in that they can neutralise the endotoxins released by gram negative bacteria when ruptured. These peptides can also kill many eukaryotes , many different fungi like Candida, Fusarium.
It is very effective in fungal keratitis and shown to be as effective as amphotericin B which is unstable and expensive. When treating Candida biofilms it is demonstrated to be more effective than Fluconazole.
This designed synthetic Beta sheet folding peptides are highly selective,non cytotoxic at minimum inhibition concentrations(MIC) and have great potential as broad spectrum antimicrobials to overcome antibiotic resistant Multi drug resistant(MDR) pathogens.
This class of peptides can be designed to eliminate fungi like Aspergillus, Coccidioides(Valley fever) and others. We will further research on designs of this peptide and attempt to treat infections caused by amoeba and protozoa like leishmaniasis, trichomoniasis and other parasitic diseases.
We will also test one engineered variation of this peptide on carbapenem resistant bacteria and the list of antibiotic resistant bacteria listed by WHO and reproduced in the Introductory page.
We have branded this short beta folding peptide AMPirik.It is a short peptide with less than 10 amino acids so production is less complicated and relatively low cost. It is also soluble in water and most solvents.
Applications of Ampirik include use as active bactericides and fungicides.
AMPirik can be used in very specific applications:
1. For body odours and foot odours especially targeting sweat breakdown bacteria like Staphylococcus hominis. In deodorant applications it can be incorporated in sprays,roll on,creams(together with moisturisers) ,gels and liquids and powders.
2. For sterilisation of contact lenses as wash and soak (anti bacterial and anti fungi)
3. For dental prostheses sterilization and soak.
4. For non alcoholic moisturising hand sanitisers in sprays,clear liquids,emulsions,creams and disposable tissues and cloths.
5. For Nappy rashes and all minor skin cuts, irritations and infections caused by bacteria or fungus as liquid or cream forms.
6. For eyedrops for all eye infections especially bacterial and fungal keratitis.
7. For oral ulcer gels and gum infection as gels and medicated solutions.
8. For Ear,Nose and Throat local fungal and bacterial infections as medicated solution or drops.
9. In first and second degree burns as medicated powder or creams,ointments and sprays.
10. In diabetic,pressure wounds and post operative wounds in medicated solutions,creams and sprays.
C. Bacterial Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from Natural or Bioengineered Enzymes.
Quorum Sensing Bacteria(QS)was first discovered about 40 years ago in marine bacterial species Vibrio fischeri and Vibrio harveyi.Both caused bioluminescence.Quorum sensing is described as :
When bacteria gather in a cluster and mutually sense a group presence they send signals to each other through auto inducers which are small signalling proteins. These signals trigger all bacteria present to multiply by binary fission and very quickly huge numbers of the same phenotype overwhelm the host. This means the bacteria has become virulent and infection and disease symptoms appear in the host. This bacteria virulence is promoted by quorum sensing.
If these auto inducers or quorum sensing mechanism can be quenched or inhibited the bacteria will not be wiped out completely but reduced to a non virulent population and the host infection or disease will be suppressed.
There are inter and intra cellular bacteria quorum sensing. It is believed that intra cellular signal agents called cyclic di- GMP is a second bacteria signalling agent and an important player in biofilm productions and defense against antibiotics.
So inhibitors of both intercellular auto inducers and intracellular cyclic di-GMP contribute to quenching or suppressing bacterial and many fungal infections.
These inhibitors can be natural enzymes produced by the bacteria eg Acyl homoserine lactone lactonase(AHL Lactonase)or natural enzymes from plants(eg garlic) and chemically engineered or synthesised enzymes.
There is merit to demonstrate the advantages of subduing an infection with quorum sensing inhibitors in that they do not kill all the bacteria in the host body(including the natural microbiome).When the natural microbiome is wiped out the host is subject to metabolic stress and invasions by opportunistic pathogens. Replacement of “good” bacteria is necessary.
It is theorised that if our animals kept for meat whether cattle chickens pigs or fish are not given antibiotics when they are infected but instead fed with quorum sensing inhibitor enzymes, they may be healthier as their natural microbiome is maintained. No antibiotics treated pathogens are then left in animals to mutate to antibiotic resistance.
In humans infections treated by such probiotics may leave our natural microbiome of Lactobacillus and other gut flora unharmed.
Certain quorum sensing inhibitors which are naturally produced can in higher concentrations become very effective antibiotics as demonstrated below:
Applications for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors:
1. For skin minor injuries,burns ,bacterial and fungal infections.
(Picture of skin creams or lotions)
2. For animals including pet infections, in the animal husbandry animal feed supplement and medicines the market is big as this prevents such animals from harbouring antibiotic resistant pathogens and mutating in their bodies to infect man.
(Pictures of pig chicken cattle fish dogs and cats and also pictures of animal feed and medicine)
3. For agricultural control of plants fruits grains and flowers infection with fungus and bacteria.
4. For human probiotics. Taken with some Natural gut bacteria like Lactobacillus this quorum sensing inhibitor will not interfere with the natural microbiome of the human gut but protects the body from any virulence from a whole host of bacteria and fungus.This keeps the Digestive System healthy.
5. For gargles,this product unlike harsh disinfecting or antiseptic agents like chlorhexidine or alcohol,does not kill the natural microbiome in the oral, buccal and upper respiratory tract while protecting the whole area from virulent pathogen infections.
Eye Screening for the masses.
A convenient and affordable system to check the eyes of those over 40 years of age and diabetics. These two groups are at high risk of developing eye diseases like cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration(AMD),macular diseases and other serious eye diseases.
All these eye diseases have no pain or symptoms but can lead to blindness. Early detection is essential as most of these eye diseases can be treated at early stages.
Early detection is the best prevention.
Our Eye Tess(Telehealth Eye Screening System) uses a Fundus Camera to take a person’s eyes photos without requiring pupil dilation eye drops (non mydriasis).These photo images are wirelessly sent to our Remote Image Grading Centre by internet or through telephone network.
Our Remote Image Grading Centre then interprete the eye images and recommend either a retest for normal eyes or immediate Eye Specialist attention for those with symptoms of eye diseases.
This triage medical process ensures early detection and treatment of those persons needing immediate eye medical attention and improves the eye health of those in the high risks group.
We want to establish a culture where eye check is part of health check and as important as liver check and blood profile check.